Landmark discoveries of the ECCPS over the past years include, amongst others, identification of pathways controlling cardiomyocyte de- and re-differentiation, elucidation of the role of non-coding RNAs in vascular biology, the deciphering of molecular pathways driving lung vascular remodeling and reverse-remodeling as well as atherosclerotic processes. Furthermore, we have identified regenerative processes both in the myocardium and the lung parenchyma. Notably, discoveries by our faculty have led to worldwide clinical approval of novel therapies, namely inhaled iloprost and treprostinil as well as sildenafil/tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and the recent launching of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat for PAH and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH; first drug in this field). In addition, the concept of using bone marrow-derived cells to improve the healing after acute myocardial infarction is currently tested in a phase III pan-European investigator-initiated study (BAMI). Other ongoing or about-to-start investigator-initiated phase I/II trials under the responsibility of ECCPS faculty members include the inhibition of microRNA (miR)-92a for cardiac revascularization and recovery, the inhalative application of GM-CSF for recovery from severe ARDS, the inhalation of FGF10 for lung regeneration in lung fibrosis and emphysema, and repurposing of PAH approved drugs for improvement of right heart function.